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Product Description

A patented form of magnesium, Magnesium Threonate, it promotes learning and memory as a result of beneficial effect on synaptic density and plasticity.

MagMind contains a patented form of magnesium, Magensium Threonate (MgT), developed by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), that more efficiently passes through the blood-brain barrier and concentrates in the brain.

Magnesium has long been regarded as a key nutrient for optimal brain function. More recently, scientists have found it specifically promotes learning and memory as a result of its beneficial effect on synaptic density and plasticity. 1,2,3 Density is the number of synapses concentrated in an area and plasticity is the ability to rapidly change the number and strength of brain cell synapses, critical to the brain's ability to form, retain, and retrieve memories.*

Magnesium works with calcium to modulate ion channels that open in response to nerve impulses, which in turn trigger neurotransmitter release. The most important of those channels is controlled by a complex called the NDMA receptor.4,5 NMDA receptors play an important role in promoting neural plasticity and synaptic density, the structural underpinnings of memory.6-8Unfortunately, it can be hard for the body to maintain optimal levels of magnesium in the brain, especially for older individuals, as magnesium deficiency increases over time, as well as other individuals with health issues leading to insufficient absorption and levels of magnesium. The imbalance of magnesium to calcium is also theorized to calcium plaque build-up in arteries and bone spurs.15

In lab tests on animals, when taken orally, MgT concentrated more efficiently in the brain, rebuilding ruptured synapses, and restoring the degraded neuronal connections observed in Alzheimer's disease and other forms of memory loss.1,2 In experimental models, oral supplementation with magnesium-L-threonate increased magnesium levels in the spinal fluid (a measurement in brain magnesium) by 15%, and induced improvements of 18% for short-term memory and 100% for long-term memory.2

"Half of the population of the industrialized world has a magnesium deficiency,researcher Guosong Liu says. Guosong Liu and his colleagues at MIT developed MgT after discovering in 2004 thatmagnesium might enhance learning and memory. Liu and his colleagues work at MITs Picower Institute for Learningand Memory.16

Increased Density of Synapses and Improved Memory

In experimental animals (rats) MgT increased synaptic density and plasticity. The research team asked the then, "Do those changes lead to an increase in the number of neurotransmitter release sites, and, subsequently, to enhanced signal transmission, the hallmark of learning and memory?"2 Using high-tech microscopic measuring devices, the team demonstrated that the magnesium elevation in brain tissue observed in Magnesium Threonate supplementation increased the number of functioning neurotransmitter release sites2The final question to be addressed in this series of studies was whether the increased density of synaptic connections directly correlated with the observed improvements in memory created by Magnesium Threonate supplementation.

The researchers systematically plotted out the time-course of the increase in synaptic density following Magnesium Threoante supplementation, and found that it directly paralleled the improvements in memory.2 They also found that when MgT supplementation was stopped, the densityof synaptic connections dropped back to baseline, further confirming the correlation. They found that MgT supplementation boosted all of the animals' performance, not just average performance.

Improved Spatial Working Short-Term Memory

Spatial working memory is a form of short term memory used tasks such as remembering where your car keys are and returning to the correct page in a magazine you were reading a short time ago, and where you are in relation to the world.

The MIT researchers tested spatial working memory in experimental animals. Without treatment, both young and old animals forgot the correct choice about 30% of the time. After 24 days of MgT supplementation, however, memory performance increased by more than 17%. By 30 days of supplementation, the older animals' performance became equal to that of their younger counterparts. Since the older animals were more forgetful at baseline than the younger animals, the older animals had a larger percentage memory improvement (nearly 19%) than the younger animals' more modest 13%2

When MgT supplementation stopped, the memory-enhancing effects persisted in younger animals, but in older animals spatial working memory performance declined to baseline within 12 days.2When MgT supplementation to the older animals was resumed, however, their memory performance was restored in 12 days.

MgT improved memory in both old and young animals, but had a substantially greater effect on aged individualsthe very ones most in need of memory enhancements.

Improved Spatial Working Long-Term Memory

Long-term spatial memory is how you remember where you live or how to get to the grocery store. Loss of spatial long-term memory is one of the main reasons that older people with dementia get lost running even simple errands and is one of the early signs of Alzheimer's.

To test spatial long-term memory in MgT-supplemented animals, the researchers used a maze that required the animal to swim and find a submerged platform on which to rest. Again, both old and young animals supplemented with magnesium-L-threonate learned significantly faster than untreated animals during the training sessions.2

One hour after the training period, the researchers removed the submerged platform, causing the animals to have to search for its last location. Both young and old supplemented and unsupplemented animals remembered where the platform had been over the short term and were searching for it in the correct quadrant of the maze.

But after 24 hours, a remarkable difference was observed. Untreated animals, both young and old, completely forgot where the platform had been hidden, randomly searching in all quadrants of the maze. Supplemented animals, on the other hand, continued to search in the correct part of the maze more than twice as long as they looked in incorrect areas.8 That translated into improvements in spatial long-term memory of 122% in younger supplemented animals, and nearly 100% in older supplemented animals.

In short, MgT supplementation doubled the accuracy of long-term spatial memory in older animals, and more than doubled it in younger animals.

Improved Recall

The ability to retrieve an important memory based on only partial information is called pattern completion.2 You use pattern completion memory to find your way around a familiar neighborhood after dark or following a heavy snowstorm. In both cases, some familiar cues are gone, but a healthy brain will fill in the missing details by completing a recognizable pattern.

As previously described, when researchers removed some of the external visual cues from the water maze, younger animals had no particular difficulty finding their way to the hidden platform during the first 24-hour period. Older animals, on the other hand, demonstrated substantial impairment when familiar cues were missing, spending more than twice as much time searching for the missing platform. When given MgT for 30 days, however, older animals performed as well as the younger ones, quickly finding the platform even when many of the external cues were unavailable.2

In human terms, this kind of improvement could mean the difference between a routine trip to the grocery store at dusk versus getting lost in the dark.

Cellular and Molecular Basis of Memory Improvement with MgT

Having successfully demonstrated that magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) improves multiple forms of learning and memory in living animals, the research team sought to explore the cellular and molecular basis of that improvement.

The first step was to determine the effects of MgT supplementation on signaling between brain cells mediated by what are known as NMDA receptors. These receptors operate through varying concentrations of calcium and magnesium in brain tissue, making them a logical point of observation.

The first finding was that MgT treatment in animals resulted in stronger signaling at essential brain cell synapses.2This increase in signaling was accomplished by a 60% increase in production of new NMDA receptors and by increases of up to 92% in related proteins that play essential supporting roles in brain signal transmission.2

Synaptic plasticity, the ability to rapidly change the number and strength of brain cell synapses, is critical to the brain's ability to form, retain, and retrieve memories. The research team compared synaptic plasticity in the brains of MgT-supplemented animals versus controls.2

They found that production of a subunit of the NMDA receptor closely associated with synaptic plasticity, was selectively enhanced by MgT supplementation.2 This molecular change is known to cause potent long-term increases in synaptic strength, and hence a greater capacity for information storage and memory.2,9-11

The result of these increases in NMDA receptor numbers was a 52% enhancement in long-term potentiation,2 the cellular equivalent of memory formation in the brain tissues of MgT-supplemented animals.12,13

Memory depends not only on synaptic plasticity, but also on the healthy physical structure of synapses between brain cells. Unfortunately, synaptic connections in the memory-rich hippocampus region of the brain decline with aging, which directly correlates with memory loss.The hippocampus is a small, sea horse-shaped structure deep in the center of your brain whose functioning is critical to your ability to consolidate information from short-term memory into long-term memory and for spatial navigation - abilities which become increasingly impaired with the progression of Alzheimer's. The hippocampus is located next to the olafactory bulb which gives us our sense of smell. Frequently one of the earliest signs of lzheimer's is the loss of a sense of smell.

One of the most vital structures to be found at brain cell synapses is the synaptic bouton, from the French word for button. When an electrical impulse reaches a pre-synaptic bouton, and ample calcium and magnesium are present, neurotransmitters are released to transmit the impulse to the next neuron in line. The greater the number and density of synaptic boutons, the stronger the electrochemical signal that the synapse can produce, and the more sustained the memory that is created.14

When the researchers examined the brains of control and MgT-supplemented animals under a high-power microscope, they detected much greater densities of synaptic bouton proteins in tissues from the supplemented animals. Those proteins are essential for neurotransmitter release in the several regions of the hippocampus vital for memory formation and retrieval.2 The density of the synaptic boutons was closely correlated with the memory performance of each individual animal on the novel object recognition test.

Therefore the increase in boutons within the hippocampus could increase the efficiency with which we convert short term memories to long term memory, and perform tasks requiring spatial navigation.

Recommended adult dose

One capsule, three times a day in divided dosages (one in the morning, one in the afternoon, one in the early evening). While each capsule supplies a modest 48 mg of elemental magnesium, it has superior absorption into the bloodstream and nervous system.

Amount Per 1 capsule serving   %Daily Value
Magnesium (from 667 mg MagteinTM magnesium L-threonate) 48 mg 12%

Other ingredients: Cellulose, magnesium stearate (vegetable source) and silicon dioxide. Capsule consists of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

*The above statements have not been reviewed by the FDA. This product is not intended to treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


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5. Metabolism. 2008 Oct;57 Suppl 2:S6-10.
6. Brain Res. 2007 Feb 16;1133(1):42-8.

7. MacDonald JF, Jackson MF, Beazely MA. Hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity and signal amplification of NMDA receptors. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 2006;18(1-2):71-84.
8. Brain Res. 2005 Oct 5;1058(1-2):101-8.
9. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):595-604.

10. Martin SJ, Grimwood PD, Morris RG. Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2000;23:649-711.
11. J Neurochem. 2008 Feb;104(4):1116-31.
12. Fitoterapia. 2010 Jul;81(5):306-14.
13. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Sep;14(3):226-46.
14. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2010 Sep 1;10(3):238-46.
15. Available at: accessed Dec 29, 2011

16. Neuron, Volume 65, Issue 2, 165-177, 28 January 2010, Enhancement of Learning and Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium





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